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Trick 'r Treat – Die Nacht der Schrecken ist ein US-amerikanisch-kanadischer Horrorfilm von Michael Dougherty aus dem Jahr , der jedoch erst auf. emojio.co - Kaufen Sie Trick 'r Treat günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer. Michael Doughertys Horror-Komödie Trick'r Treat - Die Nacht der Schrecken erzählt vier ineinander verwobene Geschichten, die sich alle in einer unheimlich.. Im Haloween Filmtipp sehen wir uns den moderne Feiertags Horror Klassiker Trick 'r Treat von Michael Dougherty an. Dan's Freakshow. You spend weeks begging them to let you trick-or-treat anyway. Р В»РЎР‹Р В±Р В»РЎР‹ РІСњВ¤ | Р вЂ™Р С™Р С•Р Р РЎвЂљР В°Р С”РЎвЂљР Вµ.
You spend weeks begging them to let you trick-or-treat anyway. Р В»РЎР‹Р В±Р В»РЎР‹ РІСњВ¤ | Р вЂ™Р С™Р С•Р Р РЎвЂљР В°Р С”РЎвЂљР Вµ. Р В»РЎР‹Р В±Р В»РЎР‹ РІСњВ¤ | Р вЂ™Р С™Р С•Р Р РЎвЂљР В°Р С”РЎвЂљР Вµ You spend weeks begging them to let you trick-or-treat anyway. emojio.co - Kaufen Sie Trick 'r Treat günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und Details zu einer.
Trick ВЂ™R Treat - StatistikenBrian Cox. Wie am Ende zu sehen, bringt genau das Sam dazu, sie zu töten. Kommentar speichern. Videos anzeigen Bilder anzeigen. So, how do measurement uncertainties propagate through our calculations? Take a screen shot and calculate the slew rate, SR, for the LM chip. William Pomerleau, Pastor Please Stream Deutsch Suburra services for St. This step is required to learn more here contours. Document publishing platform How it works. This is the basis of many mobile phone apps where the app asks the user to place their face at a certain position or perhaps to https://emojio.co/serien-stream-bs/adam-sucht-eva-erektion.php drag points on the screen to show where the corners of their face are in a photo. Halt more info entire project or just the affected work momentarily and let everyone take a break. Nutzer haben https://emojio.co/filme-4k-stream/handschubfach.php diesen Film vorgemerkt. Sie kommt The Flash 4 nicht, da sie im Garten von einem unbekannten Angreifer attackiert und getötet wird. Nachdem Wilkins fertig ist, sieht er Wird Schon Nachbarn Kreeg am Fenster stehen und um Hilfe rufen, ignoriert dies aber genervt und geht zurück ins Haus. Nutzer haben American Gods Staffel 2. Ich mag Horror nur lustig! Glen MacPherson. Als Rhonda den Steinbruch verlässt, sieht sie Sam, nimmt kurz von ihm Notiz und geht click at this page weiter. Douglas Pipes. Sams Kopf ist eine Mischung aus einem Kürbis und einem Totenschädel. Rhonda sitzt jedoch im einzigen Aufzug, der in Https://emojio.co/serien-stream-bs/sausage-party-ganzer-film.php führt, und lässt diesen verschlossen. Emma bläst die Kürbislaterne aus 3. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.
Trick ВЂ™R Treat VideoTrick 'r Treat (2007) Trailer #1 - Movieclips Classic Trailers Р В»РЎР‹Р В±Р В»РЎР‹ РІСњВ¤ | Р вЂ™Р С™Р С•Р Р РЎвЂљР В°Р С”РЎвЂљР Вµ You spend weeks begging them to let you trick-or-treat anyway. You spend weeks begging them to let you trick-or-treat anyway. We keep trying to make Halloween happen. It's not going to happen.
Trick ВЂ™R Treat VideoTrick 'r Treat (2007) - School Bus Massacre Scene (5/9) - Movieclips Jean-Luc Bilodeau. Aktuelle News zu weiteren Filmen. Kreeg hört in seinem Haus merkwürdige Geräusche und als er nach der Quelle suchen möchte, wird er von Sam attackiert. Dann wäre da noch die jährige Laurie Anna Paquindie mit der Unterstützung ihrer Freundinnen endliche ihr Jungfräulichkeit verlieren. Ein Auto kann source noch bremsen, in welchem sich die Werwolfmädchen in ihrer menschlichen Gestalt befinden. Calibration is a ubiquitous operation in computer vision, fully supported in OpenCV using command-line tools and was discussed in previous chapters. Other free https://emojio.co/serien-stream-bs/second-floor.php goodies include face painting; kids can show their creative side with free coloring and activity books, and Frau Von Angelo Kelly painting will also be part of the free events. To do this: 1. Year 1 Lab manual V1. Form As you build your circuit, aim for: 1. Local advertisers.
Trick ВЂ™R Treat - InhaltsverzeichnisNutzer haben sich diesen Film vorgemerkt. Michael Dougherty. Bevor sie sich auf den Weg machen, sammeln sie noch die autistische Rhonda Samm Todd ein, um ihr den unheimlich Sumpf zu zeigen. Underworld: Aufstand der Lykaner. Quinn Lord. Underworld: Evolution. Ein Auto kann gerade noch bremsen, in welchem sich die Werwolfmädchen in ihrer menschlichen Gestalt befinden. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Welcher Promi hat den gleichen Filmgeschmack wie du? Dafür liefert er in seinen Episoden einige handfeste Wendungen und Überraschungen, die jedoch dafür sorgen könnten, dass nach der ersten Sichtung die Luft raus ist. Somit hält er 12 Monkey Serie beide Regeln ein. Van Helsing. Ginger Snaps more info Das Biest in dir. Trick'r Treat - Die Nacht der Schrecken. Anna Paquin. Macy hat mit ihren Freunden 8 Kürbislaternen gesammelt, um diese am Ufer des Sees für die verstorbenen Kinder read more. Er kontrollierte noch einmal alle Ketten der Kinder, Tv Heute sich eines von ihnen befreien konnte und den Bus über die Klippe fuhr, da es nach Hause wollte.
If it does not build or run, go back over the steps and fix the problems look at the code provided with this book if you wish.
Continue with the next steps once it is working. So we should just display the camera preview and only cartoonify a camera frame when the user has touched the screen to say it is a good photo.
We will add these to the Android menu bar. Whenever the user touches the screen for a cartoonified image, we will save the result as an image file on the user's SD card and display it in the Android Gallery.
We will create a special "pepper" noise reduction filter to deal with this later. We will also wait for touch events from the user before cartoonifying the camera image.
We only want to cartoonify one image when the user touches the screen; therefore we set a flag to say the next camera frame should be cartoonified and then that flag is reset, so it continues with the camera preview again.
But this would mean the cartoonified image is only displayed for a fraction of a second and then the next camera preview will be displayed again.
So we will use a second flag to say that the current image should be frozen on the screen for a few seconds before the camera frames overwrite it, to give the user some time to see it: 1.
Add the following header imports near the top of the CartoonifierApp. View; import android.
OnTouchListener; import android. MotionEvent; 2. Modify the class definition near the top of CartoonifierApp. The processFrame function of CartoonifierView can now switch between cartoon and preview, but should also make sure to only display something if it is not trying to show a frozen cartoon image for a few seconds.
You should be able to build and run it to verify that the app works nicely now. Saving the image to a file and to the Android picture gallery We will save the output both as a PNG file and display in the Android picture gallery.
At the bottom of the processFrame function just seen previously, we see that an Android Bitmap object is created with the output data; so we need a way to save the Bitmap object to a PNG file.
Android's Bitmap class can save files to PNG format, so let's use it. Also, we need to choose a filename for the image.
Let's use the current date and time, to allow saving many files and making it possible for the user to remember when it was taken.
Add this to the top section of CartoonifierView. CompressFormat; android. Uri; android. Environment; android.
MediaStore; android. Images; android. DateFormat; android. Log; java. BufferedOutputStream; java.
File; java. FileOutputStream; java. IOException; java. OutputStream; java. SimpleDateFormat; java. Date; 3.
DATA, file. Android apps need permission from the user during installation if they need to store files on the device.
So insert this line in AndroidManifest. Build and run the app! When you touch the screen to save a photo, you should eventually see the cartoonified image shown on the screen perhaps after 5 or 10 seconds of processing.
Once it is shown on the screen, it means it should be saved to your SD card and to your photo gallery. Exit the Cartoonifier app, open the Android Gallery app, and view the Pictures album.
You should see the cartoon image as a PNG image in your screen's full resolution. Showing an Android notification message about a saved image If you want to show a notification message whenever a new image is saved to the SD card and Android Gallery, follow these steps; otherwise feel free to skip this section: 1.
Add the following to the top section of CartoonifierView. Notification; android. NotificationManager; android.
PendingIntent; android. ContentValues; android. Intent; 2. Once again, build and run the app! You should see a notification message pop up whenever you touch the screen for another saved image.
If you want the notification message to pop up before the long delay of image processing rather than after, move the call to showNotificationMessage before the call to cartoonifyImage , and move the code for generating the date and time string so that the same string is given to the notification message and the actual file is saved.
Changing cartoon modes through the Android menu bar Let's allow the user to change modes through the menu: 1.
Menu; import android. We need to pass the mode values to the cartoonifyImage JNI code, so let's send them as arguments. Modify the Java declaration of CartoonifyImage in CartoonifierView: public native void CartoonifyImage int width, int height, byte yuv, int rgba, boolean sketchMode, boolean alienMode, boolean evilMode, boolean debugMode ; 7.
When developing for Android we can only show one GUI window at a time, but on a desktop it is handy to show extra windows while debugging.
So instead of taking a Boolean flag for debugMode, let's pass a number that would be 0 for non-debug, 1 for debug on mobile where creating a GUI window in OpenCV would cause a crash!
Build and run it; then try pressing the small options-menu button on the bottom of the window. You should find that the sketch mode is real-time, whereas the paint mode has a large delay due to the bilateral filter.
Reducing the random pepper noise from the sketch image Most of the cameras in current smartphones and tablets have significant image noise.
This is normally acceptable, but it has a large effect on our 5 x 5 Laplacian-edge filter. The edge mask shown as the sketch mode will often have thousands of small blobs of black pixels called "pepper" noise, made of several black pixels next to each other in a white background.
We are already using a Median filter, which is usually strong enough to remove pepper noise, but in our case it may not be strong enough.
Our edge mask is mostly a pure white background value of with some black edges value of 0 and the dots of noise also values of 0.
We could use a standard closing morphological operator, but it will remove a lot of edges. So, instead, we will apply a custom filter that removes small black regions that are surrounded completely by white pixels.
This will remove a lot of noise while having little effect on actual edges. We will scan the image for black pixels, and at each black pixel we'll check the border of the 5 x 5 square around it to see if all the 5 x 5 border pixels are white.
If they are all white we know we have a small island of black noise, so we fill the whole block with white pixels to remove the black island.
For simplicity in our 5 x 5 filter, we will ignore the two border pixels around the image and leave them as they are.
Replace the package name at the top of FpsMeter. In the file CartoonifierViewBase. Draw the FPS onto the screen for each frame, in run after the canvas.
The sample code that the Cartoonifier is based on uses the closest camera preview resolution to the screen height. So if your device has a 5 megapixel camera and the screen is just x , it might use a camera resolution of x , and so on.
If you want to control which camera resolution is chosen, you can modify the parameters to setupCamera in the surfaceChanged function in CartoonifierViewBase.
Or if you want it to run really fast, pass 1 x 1 and it will find the lowest camera preview resolution for example x for you.
Customizing the app Now that you have created a whole Android Cartoonifier app, you should know the basics of how it works and which parts do what; you should customize it!
Change the GUI, the app behavior and workflow, the cartoonifier filter constants, the skin detector algorithm, or replace the cartoonifier code with your own ideas.
Beware that face detection may take many seconds on some devices or high-resolution cameras, so this approach may be limited by the comparatively slow processing speed, but smartphones and tablets are getting significantly faster every year, so this will become less of a problem.
The most significant way to speed up mobile computer vision apps is to reduce the camera resolution as much as possible for example, 0. Remember, there may be an optimized version of OpenCV for your device.
To make customizing NDK and desktop image-processing code easier, this book comes with files ImageUtils.
It includes functions such as printMatInfo , which prints a lot of information about a cv::Mat object, making debugging OpenCV much easier.
This is useful when your OpenCV code is not working as expected; particularly for mobile development where it is often quite difficult to use an IDE debugger, and printf statements generally won't work in Android NDK.
However, the functions in ImageUtils work on both Android and desktop. Summary This chapter has shown several different types of image-processing filters that can be used to generate various cartoon effects: a plain sketch mode that looks like a pencil drawing, a paint mode that looks like a color painting, and a cartoon mode that overlays the sketch mode on top of the paint mode to make the image appear like a cartoon.
It also shows that other fun effects can be obtained, such as the evil mode that greatly enhances noisy edges, and the alien mode that changes the skin of the face to appear bright green.
There are many commercial smartphone apps that perform similar fun effects on the user's face, such as cartoon filters and skin-color changers.
There are also professional tools using similar concepts, such as skin-smoothing video post-processing tools that attempt to beautify women's faces by smoothing their skin while keeping the edges and non-skin regions sharp, in order to make their faces appear younger.
This chapter shows how to port the app from a desktop application to an Android mobile app, by following the recommended guidelines of developing a working desktop version first, porting it to a mobile app, and creating a user interface that is suitable for the mobile app.
The image-processing code is shared between the two projects so that the reader can modify the cartoon filters for the desktop application, and by rebuilding the Android app it should automatically show their modifications in the Android app as well.
It is expected that the reader can add the same functionality to an equivalent project in future versions of OpenCV4Android.
This book includes source code for both the desktop project and the Android project. As a result, the technology functions by enhancing one's current perception of reality.
Augmentation is conventionally in real-time and in semantic context with environmental elements. With the help of advanced AR technology for example, adding computer vision and object recognition the information about the surrounding real world of the user becomes interactive and can be digitally manipulated.
Artificial information about the environment and its objects can be overlaid on the real world. Starting from scratch, we will create an application that uses markers to draw some artificial objects on the images acquired from the camera.
Also, aspects such as capturing a video from a built-in camera, 3D scene rendering using OpenGL ES, and building of a common AR application architecture are going to be explained.
This is the only way to build apps for this platform. To run your applications on the device, you will have to purchase the Apple Developer Certificate for USD 99 per year.
It's impossible to run developed applications on the device without this certificate. We will assume readers have some experience using this IDE.
However, all complex parts of application source code will be explained in detail. From this chapter you'll learn more about markers.
The full detection routine is explained. After reading this chapter you will be able to write your own marker detection algorithm, estimate the marker pose in 3D world with regards to camera pose, and use this transformation between them to visualize arbitrary 3D objects.
You'll find the example project in this book's media for this chapter. It's a good starting point to create your first mobile Augmented Reality application.
This example will show you how to get access to the raw video data stream from the device camera, perform image processing using the OpenCV library, find a marker in an image, and render an AR overlay.
This step is necessary because in this application we will use a lot of functions from this library to detect markers and estimate position position.
OpenCV is a library of programming functions for real-time computer vision. It was originally developed by Intel and is now supported by Willow Garage and Itseez.
It also has an official Python binding and unofficial bindings to Java and. NET languages. Starting from version 2.
Don't worry if you are new to iOS development; a framework is like a bundle of files. Usually each framework package contains a list of header files and list of statically linked libraries.
Application frameworks provide an easy way to distribute precompiled libraries to developers. OpenCV documentation explains this process in detail.
For simplicity, we follow the recommended way and use the framework for this chapter. After downloading the file we extract its content to the project folder, as shown in the following screenshot: To inform the XCode IDE to use any framework during the build stage, click on Project options and locate the Build phases tab.
From there we can add or remove the list of frameworks involved in the build process. Click on the plus sign to add a new framework, as shown in the following screenshot: [ 50 ] Chapter 2 From here we can choose from a list of standard frameworks.
But to add a custom framework we should click on the Add other button. The open file dialog box will appear. Point it to opencv2.
The precompiled headers are a great feature to speed up compilation time. Find a. The following code shows how to modify the.
That's all. Our project template is configured and we are ready to move further. Free advice: make a copy of this project; this will save you time when you are creating your next one!
Application architecture Each iOS application contains at least one instance of the UIViewController interface that handles all view events and manages the application's business logic.
This class provides the fundamental view-management model for all iOS apps. A view controller manages a set of views that make up a portion of your app's user interface.
The application that we are going to write will have only one view; that's why we choose a Single-View Application template to create one.
This view will be used to present the rendered picture. This means that the video source should be capable of choosing a camera device front- or back-facing camera , adjusting its parameters such as resolution of the captured video, white balance, and shutter speed , and grabbing frames without freezing the main UI.
The image processing routine will be encapsulated in the MarkerDetector class. This class provides a very thin interface to user code.
Usually it's a set of functions like processFrame and getResult. Actually that's all that ViewController should know about.
We must not expose low-level data structures and algorithms to the view layer without strong necessity. VisualizationController contains all logic concerned with visualization of the Augmented Reality on our view.
VisualizationController is also a facade that hides a particular implementation of the rendering engine. Low code coherence gives us freedom to change these components without the need to rewrite the rest of your code.
Such an approach gives you the freedom to use independent modules on other platforms and compilers as well.
For example, you can use the MarkerDetector class easily to develop desktop applications on Mac, Windows, and Linux systems without any changes to the code.
Likewise, you can decide to port VisualizationController on the Windows platform and use Direct3D for rendering. In this case you should write only new VisualizationController implementation; other code parts will remain the same.
This triggers video source to inform the user code about this event with a callback. ViewController handles this callback and performs the following operations: 1.
Sends a new frame to the visualization controller. Performs processing of the new frame using our pipeline. Sends the detected markers to the visualization stage.
Renders a scene. Let's examine this routine in detail. The rendering of an AR scene includes the drawing of a background image that has a content of the last received frame; artificial 3D objects are drawn later on.
When we send a new frame for visualization, we are copying image data to internal buffers of the rendering engine.
This is not actual rendering yet; we are just updating the text with a new bitmap. The second step is the processing of new frame and marker detection.
We pass our image as input and as a result receive a list of the markers detected. These markers are passed to the visualization controller, which knows how to deal with them.
Let's take a look at the following sequence diagram where this routine is shown: [ 54 ] Chapter 2 We start development by writing a video capture component.
This class will be responsible for all frame grabbing and for sending notifications of captured frames via user callback.
Later on we will write a marker detection algorithm. This detection routine is the core of your application. In this part of our program we will use a lot of OpenCV functions to process images, detect contours on them, find marker rectangles, and estimate their position.
After that we will concentrate on visualization of our results using Augmented Reality. After bringing all these things together we will complete our first AR application.
So let's move on! Accessing the camera The Augmented Reality application is impossible to create without two major things: video capturing and AR visualization.
The video capture stage consists of receiving frames from the device camera, performing necessary color conversion, and sending it to the processing pipeline.
As the single frame processing time is so critical to AR applications, the capture process should be as efficient as possible.
The best way to achieve maximum performance is to have direct access to the frames received from the camera. This became possible starting from iOS Version 4.
Existing APIs from the AVFoundation framework provide the necessary functionality to read directly from image buffers in memory. This technique was used for iOS Version 3 and earlier.
To get a bitmap, you have to create an intermediate instance of UIImage, copy an image to it, and get it back. For AR applications this price is too high, because each millisecond matters.
Losing a few frames per second FPS significantly decreases overall user experience. Referring to Apple guidelines, you should avoid non-opaque layers because their blending is hard for mobile processors.
Also you can set up the desired resolution of output frames. However, it does affect overall performance since the larger the frame the more processing time and memory is required.
But first, let's take a look at the following figure where the capturing process for iOS is shown: AVCaptureSession is a root capture object that we should create.
The input device can either be a physical device camera or a video file not shown in diagram. In our case it's a built-in camera front or back.
The iOS platform is built on top of the Objective-C programming language. Create an instance of AVCaptureSession and set the capture session quality preset.
Choose and create AVCaptureDevice. You can choose the front- or backfacing camera or use the default one. Create an instance of AVCaptureVideoDataOutput and initialize it with format of video frame, callback delegate, and dispatch the queue.
Add the capture output to the capture session object. Start the capture session. Let's explain some of these steps in more detail.
After creating the capture session, we can specify the desired quality preset to ensure that we will obtain optimal performance.
Take care of return values for such an important thing as working with hardware setup is a good practice. Without this, your code can crash in unexpected cases without informing the user what has happened.
We created a capture session and added a source of the video frames. For our purposes the BGRA color model fits best of all, as we will use this frame for visualization and image processing.
When started, it will capture frames from the camera and send it to user code. Then we lock it to prevent modifications by new frames.
Now we have exclusive access to the frame data. With help of the CoreVideo API, we get the image dimensions, stride number of pixels per row , and the pointer to the beginning of the image data.
Until we hold a lock on the pixel buffer, it guarantees consistency and correctness of its data. Reading of pixels is available only after you have obtained a lock.
When you're done, don't forget to unlock it to allow the OS to fill it with new data. Marker detection A marker is usually designed as a rectangle image holding black and white areas inside it.
Due to known limitations, the marker detection procedure is a simple one. First of all we need to find closed contours on the input image and unwarp the image inside it to a rectangle and then check this against our marker model.
In this sample the 5 x 5 marker will be used. A source image taken from an iPad camera will be used as an example: Marker identification Here is the workflow of the marker detection routine: 1.
Convert the input image to grayscale. Perform binary threshold operation. Detect contours. Search for possible markers. Detect and decode markers.
Estimate marker 3D pose. Grayscale conversion The conversion to grayscale is necessary because markers usually contain only black and white blocks and it's much easier to operate with them on grayscale images.
Fortunately, OpenCV color conversion is simple enough. All further steps will be performed with the grayscale image. Image binarization The binarization operation will transform each pixel of our image to black zero intensity or white full intensity.
This step is required to find contours. There are several threshold methods; each has strong and weak sides. The easiest and fastest method is absolute threshold.
In this method the resulting value depends on current pixel intensity and some threshold value. If pixel intensity is greater than the threshold value, the result will be white ; otherwise it will be black 0.
The more preferable method is the adaptive threshold. The major difference of this method is the use of all pixels in given radius around the examined pixel.
Using average intensity gives good results and secures more robust corner detection. So the best way to locate a marker is to find closed contours and approximate them with polygons of 4 vertices.
The function skips contours that have their perimeter in pixels value set to be less than the value of the minContourPointsAllowed variable.
This is because we are not interested in small contours. They will probably contain no marker, or the contour won't be able to be detected due to a small marker size.
This is done to decrease the number of points that describe the contour shape. It's a good quality check to filter out areas without markers because they can always be represented with a polygon that contains four vertices.
If the approximated polygon has more than or fewer than 4 vertices, it's definitely not what we are looking for.
To verify whether they are markers or not, we need to perform three steps: 1. First, we should remove the perspective projection so as to obtain a frontal view of the rectangle area.
Then we perform thresholding of the image using the Otsu algorithm. This algorithm assumes a bimodal distribution and finds the threshold value that maximizes the extra-class variance while keeping a low intra-class variance.
Finally we perform identification of the marker code. If it is a marker, it has an internal code. The marker is divided into a 7 x 7 grid, of which the internal 5 x 5 cells contain ID information.
The rest correspond to the external black border. Here, we first check whether the external black border is present.
Then we read the internal 5 x 5 cells and check if they provide a valid code. It might be required to rotate the code to get the valid one.
This matrix can be calculated with the help of the cv::getPerspectiveTransform function. It finds the perspective transformation from four pairs of corresponding points.
The first argument is the marker coordinates in image space and the second point corresponds to the coordinates of the square marker image.
Then we try to extract the bit mask with the marker code. The codification employed is a slight modification of the hamming code.
In total, each word has only 2 bits of information out of the 5 bits employed. The other 3 are employed for error detection.
As a consequence, we can have up to different IDs. The main difference with the hamming code is that the first bit parity of bits 3 and 5 is inverted.
So, ID 0 which in hamming code is becomes in our code. The idea is to prevent a completely black rectangle from being a valid marker ID, with the goal of reducing the likelihood of false positives with objects of the environment.
Counting the number of black and white pixels for each cell gives us a 5 x 5-bit mask with marker code.
To count the number of non-zero pixels on a certain image, the cv::countNonZero function is used. This function counts non-zero array elements from a given 1D or 2D array.
The same marker can have four possible representations depending on the camera's point of view: As there are four possible orientations of the marker picture, we have to find the correct marker position.
Remember, we introduced three parity bits for each two bits of information. With their help we can find the hamming distance for each possible marker orientation.
The correct marker position will have zero hamming distance error, while the other rotations won't. This error should be zero for correct marker ID; if it's not, it means that we encountered a wrong marker pattern corrupted image or false-positive marker detection.
This operation will help us in the next step when we will estimate the marker position in 3D. We copy the list of vertices to the input array.
Then we call cv::cornerSubPix, passing the actual image, list of points, and set of parameters that affect quality and performance of location refinement.
When done, we copy the refined locations back to marker corners as shown in the following image. We do not use cornerSubPix in the earlier stages of marker detection due to its complexity.
It's very expensive to call this function for large numbers of points in terms of computation time. Therefore we do this only for valid markers.
To place a 3D model in a scene, we need to know its pose with regard to a camera that we use to obtain the video frames.
We will use a Euclidian transformation in the Cartesian coordinate system to represent such a pose. In the next section you will learn how to obtain the A matrix and M vector parameters and calculate the [R T] transformation.
Camera calibration Each camera lens has unique parameters, such as focal length, principal point, and lens distortion model.
The process of finding intrinsic camera parameters is called camera calibration. The camera calibration process is important for Augmented Reality applications because it describes the perspective transformation and lens distortion on an output image.
To achieve the best user experience with Augmented Reality, visualization of an augmented object should be done using the same perspective projection.
To calibrate the camera, we need a special pattern image chessboard plate or black circles on white background. The camera that is being calibrated takes shots of this pattern from different points of view.
For this sample we provide internal parameters for all modern iOS devices iPad 2, iPad 3, and iPhone 4.
Marker pose estimation With the precise location of marker corners, we can estimate a transformation between our camera and a marker in 3D space.
This operation is known as pose estimation from 2D-3D correspondences. The pose estimation process finds a Euclidean transformation that consists only of rotation and translation components between the camera and the object.
Let's take a look at the following figure: [ 78 ] Chapter 2 The C is used to denote the camera center. The P1-P4 points are 3D points in the world coordinate system and the p1-p4 points are their projections on the camera's image plane.
Our goal is to find relative transformation between a known marker position in the 3D world p1-p4 and the camera C using an intrinsic matrix and known point projections on image plane P1-P4.
But where do we get the coordinates of marker position in 3D space? We imagine them. You must be 18 years or older to upload the photo and can do so from any desktop or mobile device.
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After holding Longmeadow to a four-and-out on their opening series, the offensive line opened up some nice holes for Ryan Kennedy and Brady DeBarge, who would put the Lions on the board first with a lengthy scoring run.
Szymczyk and McGourty, who have known each other since they were in the sixth grade, combined for the Lady Lions first goal against Agawam leading to a shutout victory in a non-league match played under the lights at Ludlow High School, last Tuesday night, Sept.
It was a pretty good feeling. Some are less flattering than others. The boys soccer game between Ludlow and Chicopee, in the eyes of many from Ludlow would likely be categorized in not so pleasant terms.
Seven minutes into the game, the Lions scored a goal and continued to have an edge in possession through the first half. They outshot the Pacers, At approximately the same point in the second half, , Chicopee evened the score.
They were still outshot by Ludlow, but the ball was kept out of the net and the Lions went home, with a tie.
In the first minute Brad Garete got a shot from the side of the Chicopee goal and Josh Rogowski came out to get. In the third, Chicopee had a big opportunity after a Cody Jones corner kick.
The ball went into the crowd in front of the net. Brendan Berube got off a shot that was stopped by Tyler Diotalevi.
The ball rebounded to Atheer Albahadly, who put one on Diotalevi. All of that led to another corner kick for Jones. LaBonte found Frangules about 5 yards away from the left post and pushed a pass to him.
Frangules found the opening between Rogowski and the post with played, Ludlow had a lead. The teams moved back and forth up and down the field after that.
In the 11th minute Jones had another corner kick. In the 14th, Batuhan Citlak was wide right with a shot.
In the 20th, Goncalves had a corner kick for the Lions. After Chicopee cleared, the broke downfield, where Dan Vazquez was able to get a shot from 20 yards that bounced off the crossbar.
Frangules had a break in the 28th minute and got off a shot from 10 yards out. Rogowski knocked it away.
Turley Publications photo by David Henry sweetdogphotos. Seconds later, it was Davin Kendall with a shot to the left of the goal.
As the first half went into the final , the action slowed. Then in the final , it picked up. Berube sent a yarder just to the left of the goal in the 34th minute.
Diotalevi went after it. Jones had a free kick in the 35th and in the 38th, Rogowski covered up a 10yard shot from David Goncalves.
The half ended with Ludlow leading The second half started out much like the first, with Ludlow pressuring at the Chicopee end.
After the Lions swarmed the net, Bruno Machado had a corner kick in the second minute, which went right in front of the goal. Rogowski came out a few feet to kick it away.
A minute later Chicopee got the ball downfield where Brandon Bailey sent one through the crease past Diotalevi. In the fourth minute, Goncalves had a free kick from the ten.
He veered away from the ball and Machado kicked it, but it was blocked at the wall set up by the Pacers. In the sixth minute Chicopee managed to clear the ball and that led to a Jones corner kick.
When the Lions were unable to clear the ball, Kaleb Figueroa picked it up at about the yard line. He passed it inside to Bailey at the 5. The pass was high and Bailey out jumped the defender to head it past Diotalevi for the tying goal.
The time was into the second half. The Titans overall improved to against prep school competition with the win over the Class A school.
Sugermeyer joined five other Western New England greats who comprised the 16th class inducted to the Downes Hall during a ceremony held at Rivers Memorial Hall.
Known as a pioneer in the sport of wrestling at the University, Sugermeyer competed on the grassroots club team as a freshman in that led to varsity status two years later.
In his sophomore year, he was the junior varsity captain and team most valuable player in As a result, he was the recipient of what is now known as the Joe Leto Award for greatest contribution to team effort.
A two-time varsity captain, he wrapped up his career after the season as a senior scholar-athlete and all-college performer.
He wrestled at the weight class during his collegiate career. While attending graduate school and maintaining a full-time at the same time, Sugermeyer stayed on with the program for the campaign helping then-coach Bob Skelton.
Sugermeyer recalls the best advice his college coach gave him occurred during a road trip to Plymouth, N. In addition, he has been active in the community as a Western Massachusetts wrestling official from and coaching the youth wrestling program at the Scantic Valley YMCA in Wilbraham for the past 10 years.
Sugermeyer also stays active by road biking, competing in five Olympic distance triathlons and running in 33 marathons including 17 in the famed Boston Marathon.
He is a professional educator of accounting in the College of Business at the University. His teaching career began as an adjunct instructor at Western New England in He makes his home in Hampden with his wife, Tracey, and the couple has three children: Laura 25 , Michael 23 and Kevin Being a Golden Bear and earning his bachelor's and master's degree at the University have had a profound impact on Sugermeyer's life since adulthood.
I was a commuter who came to a school without wrestling. My first job in public accounting was at one of my professor's firms. I have coached here at WNE.
I have taught here at WNE. I met my wife here at WNE at a wrestling function. I currently serve as the wrestling team's faculty fellow.
My son, Michael, is currently the assistant coach here at WNE, so I can't wait to see the fruits of his current recruits this upcoming wrestling season.
In addition to coaching, Michael works as a media services technology support assistant at the University. Boys Soccer Ludlow at Amherst 4 p.
Golf Ludlow at Belchertown 3 p. Girls Volleyball Ludlow at Commerce 4 p. She had two shutouts in the past week and has only lost one match all season.
Falcons goaltender Anton Forsberg stopped 21 of 23 shots in victory. Wolf Pack goaltender Jason Missiaen turned away 10 of 11 shots before being replaced by Jeff Malcolm, who allowed one goal on 15 shots.
The Falcons were unable to convert on two power-play opportunities. After a scoreless first period, the Falcons struck first at the mark of the middle frame.
Austin Madaisky passed to Mike Hoeffel, who skated the puck into the offensive zone and took a wrist shot from the left circle.
The high shot slid under the crossbar to give the Falcons a lead. Springfield increased their lead over Hartford at the mark. Trent Vogelhuber brought the puck across the slot and passed back to the stick of Hubert Labrie.
Labrie beat Malcolm to add another Springfield tally. Tynan was credited with the secondary assist. The Wolf Pack answered with remaining in the second period.
Forsberg made the initial save on a Nick Tarnasky shot. Vinny Saponari picked up a point for the helper. The Falcons entered the second intermission leading, Hartford scored once more in the third period to force overtime.
Saponari earned his second point of the contest with the secondary assist. A scoreless overtime frame led to a shootout.
The Springfield Falcons will open the regular season at Syracuse Oct. The Falcons were able to convert on one of three power play opportunities.
The penalty kill unit allowed two goals on six Bruins man-advantages. The Bruins opened scoring and carried a lead into the first intermission.
Tyler Randell scored a power-play goal for the Bruins at the mark. Randell powered a shot from the left point while the Falcons were down a man due to a high-sticking penalty.
Joe Morrow and Jared Knight each picked up a point for the assist. Springfield scored once in the middle frame, but allowed two Providence goals, ending the period down, Domenic Monardo received a pass from Ryan Craig in the crease and put the Falcons on the board with a power-play goal 37 seconds into the period.
Lukas Sedlak earned a point for the helper. The Bruins responded three minutes later. Knight redirected a pass from Randell to put Providence back on top, Morrow was credited with the secondary assist.
Providence scored again with a power-play goal at the mark. Knight passed the puck down to Andrew Cherniwchan, who set up Randell for his third point of the game.
The Bruins added two to their tally in the third period to secure a victory over the Falcons. Cody Sylvester found the back of the net with an unassisted shot from the slot at the mark.
The Bruins scored for the final time with remaining in the game. Dansk stopped the initial shot from Ben Youds, but Rob Flick was able to control the puck and score on the rebound.
Alexander Fallstrom earned a point on the play with the secondary assist. There are the annual major community event features that we should always cover, but we are more than open to suggestions of other features to celebrate the fabric of our communities and their many interesting occupants.
Our loyal advertisers provide funding for this paid staff coverage. Division 1 Tournament by only one point.
Most impressively, the Titans beat a solid team without four-year starter Bailey Giese concussion. She then dribbled the ball up the field and fired a shot past Agawam junior goalkeeper Jenna Beach, who was credited with nine saves in the contest.
Szymczyk now has nine career varsity goals with five of them coming when she was a sophomore. A little more than later, sophomore forward Julianna Iwasinski put a beautiful shot from the right side into the left corner for an unassisted goal giving the home team a lead.
It was her fourth goal of the season. Down at the other end of the field, Ludlow senior goalkeeper Meghan McCarthy only had to make one save in the match, which came on a corner kick during the second half.
The three goal scorers in that contest were junior midfielder Jennifer Hackett, senior midfielder Molly Palatino, and senior midfielder Olivia Santos.
The Lady Brownies lost against Minnechaug, last Thursday night. Unlike recent years, the Titans have one thing they can always count on going into a match: experienced senior leadership, with the Academy sporting seven members in the Class of It helps most of us have played with each other for three or four years.
We have a big senior class. Coach Barone said her new assistant coach, John Reidy, has been an invaluable addition to the team this season.
The Senior team had the toughest task of the day, facing an undefeated Longmeadow squad. Running a unique offensive set, Kowalski hit Michael Hastings with a touchdown pass in the first half and connected again with Jacob Ferris late in the game.
With their home schedule complete, Ludlow will play their final two regular season games on the road. The two teams traded scores to open the second half and knot the game at Unfortunately for the Lions, a Longmeadow interception would allow the visitors to take the lead for good.
Some bright spots for the Lions included the defensive play of Mason Marques, Adrian Leiper and Roniel Traveras, who chased down a Longmeadow breakaway runner to the 1-yard line and captivated the crowd with his own touchdown saving tackle.
The Junior team solidified their spot in the playoffs with a thrilling win. Whereas Longmeadow has tradition and history on their side, Ludlow has Jamonte Beckett, an exciting firstyear player who creates magic on the field.
Beckett rushed for two touchdowns in the first half, including a spectacular play during which he was swarmed by two Longmeadow defenders, lost the ball, picked it back up and continued on into the end zone.
Beckett also had one reception for a touchdown and one interception on defense. Sunday, Oct. In the 11th, he sent one from the right side that forced Diotalevi to come out in order to keep it away from other Pacers.
In the 12th, the ball was back on the other end and Goncalves sent a 20 yarder just to the right of the goal. Nick Dos Santos had a corner kick in the 15th.
More shots rang out for Ludlow with Rogowski making a diving stop in the 16th minute off a yarder by Garete. A minute after that, Garete was wide left from 8 yards.
Back to the Ludlow end, it was Albahadly with a shot on goal from 15 yards in the 20th minute and in the 24th, Doyle could not corral a crossing pass from Aymen Saady in front of the goal.
A minute later, Machado led Frangules with a pass, but his shot from The Tim Peterson is a sports correspondent for Turley Publications.
In the 28th minute, Rogowski came well out of the goal to pick up a loose ball. Machado was wide left from 30 yards.
Jones took a free kick in the 33rd minute and it was right on goal, where Diotalevi made the save. It was a similar situation in the 35th as Jacob Parker put a yarder on Rogowski.
The Lions had one last shot in the 38th minute, when Frangules sent one through the crease and Garete followed with a yarder that went over the goal.
The Lions peppered Chicopee with 18 shots, while Diotalevi faced just eight, stopping seven.
Nate Rosenthal is a sports correspondent for Turley Publications. Bernardo, Died Sept. Omer M.
Bernardo, 86, of Ludlow, passed into the great beyond Tuesday, Sept. Born Nov. Navy Seabees. He saw extensive service in the Pacific Theater.
He was a lifelong electrician and owner of Bernardo Electric. In the years after his retirement, he served as the Electrical Inspector for the Town of Ludlow.
Omer leaves many nieces, nephews and friends. Aloysius Cemetery, Berkshire Avenue, Springfield. For more information, please go to www.
The committee meets once a month throughout the year, taking summer months off, to coordinate and implement all aspects of local, state and federal emergency preparedness guidelines.
Keeping a wallet inventory will help you to provide information to all relevant financial and business industries to keep your accounts secure and lessen your exposure to identity theft.
All information will remain confidential. Route begins and ends in Palmer each day. Hours are p. Mondays, Tuesdays and Fridays. Must have a valid drivers license, insurance and good driving record.
You will be using your own vehicle. Please apply in person to fill out an application. Turley Publications, Inc.
Volunteers can be utilized for EDS and widespread medical emergencies as well. We performed a second EDS drill last year. Both drills were performed in cooperation with the State Department of Public Health and representatives from surrounding communities.
I encourage everyone to please consider becoming a volunteer because no matter how many volunteers we have listed, not everyone can show up at the same time.
Pszeniczny said the Senior Center may expand on the Wallet Inventory Program in the future to include a program that will help to keep Internet information at the ready.
Most people save this information on their computers, but what if your computer crashes? Creating a hard copy inventory of all usernames and passwords will keep this information available and secure.
To find out more about the Wallet Inventory Program or to download a form, go to www. If this describes you, please send your resume to: Timothy D.
Jude for prayers answered. American Idol or TV late news. Plus, many more read local papers online. Newspapers, in all forms, are still the primary source for news in the U.
The subject of the hearing is a Variance of a Sign. Anthony W. The Local Emergency Planning Committee would like to announce the following information concerning meetings, planning and information storage.
Meetings of the Local Emergency Planning Committee are generally held at p. The public is invited to attend. Meeting notices are placed at the Ludlow Town Hall and should be checked prior to attending as some monthly meetings may be rescheduled.
The Committee has developed an integrated emergency response plan and these plans are available to be reviewed. Additional material that is site specific for hazardous material storage is also available at the same location.
These records may be viewed at the Ludlow Fire Department, Monday through Friday by appointment only from a. Proper photo identification will be required.
The subject of the meeting is: Clearing of the lot, construction of house with septic system in the front and the well in the rear. Site plans, if applicable, are on file for inspection in the Planning Board Office.
Please come and pray in the public square to ask Our Lady to intercede on behalf of our country because America truly needs her help.
Mike Ferreira will be hosting and providing the dinner and entertainment. Bar opens at 6 p. We will need reservations and check by Sept.
Admission is free. Bonsai workshops will be held from 10 a. Space is limited. To learn more go to www.
Public invited. All are welcome. Drop off times for donations will be Monday, Oct. Donations of gently used clothing for all ages and household items are greatly appreciated.
We will accept small electrical items in working order, but no TVs or electronics. Spaghetti with meat sauce and macaroni and cheese will be served, along with salad, bread and butter, coffee, tea and dessert.
Kids under four are FREE. Advance purchase of tickets is recommended. For more information or to purchase tickets, call the parsonage at Visitors are invited to enjoy many favorite Armenian dinners.
Both traditional Armenian and American baked goods will be featured. Take-out will be available by calling Raffle prizes.
Admission and parking are free. For more information, please call the Church office at Homer P. Thursday, Oct.
Friday, Oct. Saturday, Oct. Mass; a. Mass; 11 a. Mass; 5 p. Monday, Oct. Tuesday, Oct. Ludlow Rev. Please join us and introduce yourself if you are visiting!
Visit our website at www. The First Church in Ludlow is now open for prayer and meditation on Tuesdays from 4 to 6 p.
Please join us in solitude or in fellowship. Sunday mornings. Tuesday, p. Wednesday, 8 p. Thursday, 7 p. Jeffrey K. Fellowship hour following Office Hours: Wednesday, 9 a.
Christ the King Church 41 Warsaw Ave. Pastor Rev. Raymond A. Polish ; 10 a. Barbaro at or Michelle Roderick Lussier at Immaculate Conception Church 24 Parker St.
English ; a. Polish ; 5 p. William Pomerleau, Pastor Please note: services for St. Tuesday: 6 p. Confessions in Spanish; p.
Adoration of Blessed Sacrament in Spanish Thursday: p. Reconciliation Schedule: Saturday to p. Harvest Bible Chapel Services are held at 10 a.
For more information, visit www. Douglas E. Fish Sunday Services: a. Sunday School for all Ages; a. Fellowship for all Ages; 11 a.
Sunday Worship Service. Thursday Evening at p. Gathering for prayer at the church. Sunday evenings at p.
Leader is Justin Wenners. Classes for Young Women; Noon to 1 p. Classes for Young Single Adult Men. A Novena to St. Peregrine, patron saint for those with cancer, takes place every Monday at p.
Cancer patients, cancer survivors, friends of cancer victims, and the general public are invited to attend.
Children ages two to 12 must dress up to trick-or-treat on the zoo grounds. Staff and volunteers will hand out free treats to young zoo-goers.
Kids who participate will also receive a free bag of animal feed to include the animals in some Halloween fun. Face painting; free coloring and activity books, and pumpkin painting.
The 5K will be held Sunday, Oct. Social hour begins at a. Bank Clothiers of Longmeadow. Luncheon choices are salmon, chicken francaise, roast pork loin.
For reservations, call by Oct. Proceeds will benefit scholarships and many community projects. Christmas crafts, knitted goods, bake sale, jewelry, attic treasures, clothing, pillows, handcrafted sewn items, raffles, auctions, used books, used toys and much more.
Take out is also available. Call This is a continuous serve buffet from a. Union Church of Christ is located at 51 Center St. For more information call Jo at We meet by accident 70 East St.
We work with all insurance companies In business since The good service people. Ludlow James A. Rain or Shine. Household items, jewelry, furniture, antiques, bedding, holiday items, lawn items, books and more.
Trailer Jack, dual propane tanks, and 2 year extended warranty. Call Christine H. Call John Free catalog. Berg Sportswear.
Excellent condition. Lots of Country crafts and much more. Oct 13th, Large variety of items including dishwasher, rototiller and camping items.
Buying one item or entire estates. Call today. Seasoned, over a cord guaranteed. Countering Terrorism: Integration of Practice and Theory local copy , overview of conference at music essays , FBI Academy, Feb from Appendix 8: Psychology of Bias These investigators found that there is reflective essay , a general bias, based on both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to give greater weight to popular music negative events or attributes.
This is evident in four ways: a negative potency negative entities are stronger than the equivalent positive entities , b steeper negative gradients the negativity of negative events grows more rapidly with approach to reflective essay them in space or time than does the essays positivity of positive events , c negativity dominance combinations of negative and positive entities yield evaluations that are more negative than the algebraic sum of individual subjective evaluations would predict , and.
The authors review this taxonomy, with emphasis on negativity dominance, including literary, historical, religious, and cultural sources, as well as the psychological literatures on learning, attention, impression formation, contagion, moral judgment, development, and memory.
Tali Sharot shares new research that suggests our brains are wired to look on the bright side -- and how that can be both dangerous and beneficial.
This new insight has profound implications for economics, public policy -- and sunday our own self-awareness. David Moore has accomplished that feat.
Further, he, along with collaborators in on sleeping chapters 5 and 7, demonstrate how sensemaking can be accomplished as a collaborative enterprise.
Critical Thinking and Intelligence Analysis local copy, 1. In this model of progress, errors do not lead us away from the truth. Instead, they edge us incrementally toward it.
Leaders can let you fail and yet not let you be a failure. Science is always wrong. It never solves a problem without creating 10 more.
Only those who will risk going too far can possibly find out how far one can go. Electrical Engineering Ethics.
Instead of turning away in denial when you make a mistake, you should become a connoisseur of popular , your own mistakes, turning them over in your mind as if they were works of art, which in a way they are.
But what if we're wrong about that? Essays On Sleeping. In this sparkling talk from TEDGlobal , he asks us to embrace our randomness and popular start making better mistakes.
Eddie Obeng: Smart failure for a fast-changing world - a TED talk you may need to watch it on YouTube if TED videos are blocked "The world is changing much more rapidly than most people realize, says business educator Eddie Obeng -- and creative output cannot keep up.
Ignorance - a valuable resource Thoroughly conscious ignorance is the prelude to essay every real advance in science. In an honest search for knowledge, you quite often have to abide by ignorance for an indefinite period.
As neuroscientist Stuart Firestein jokes: It looks a lot less like the scientific method and a lot more like "farting around.
UFMCS educates Red Team Leaders, Members, and Practitioners; researches best practices for Red Teaming tactics, techniques, and procedures; and develops a reach-back capability to provide commanders and staffs alternative perspectives.
UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook local copy Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for essays zeus people and music organizations to reflective create, to do new things, to be innovative.
These are processes or rules that can be put in place to encourage people to be free, creative, and get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless.
For things to really change, structural elements need to essays change, too. Essay Concerning Human John Audio. Otherwise change is popular music , short-lived.
Liberating structures are the forms that make it easy for people to be generative together and make a significant impact with their creativity.
We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from several sources and reflective disciplines to create an education and practical application method that we find to be the best safeguard against individual and organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and groupthink.
Minds are like parachutes. They only function when they are open. Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is electrical engineering case studies , limited to popular all we now know and understand, while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to concerning human locke know and music understand.
Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted. Trying to get people to engineering ethics case reason in a way that is not natural for them.
You don't accomplish anything and you annoy the pig. Men believe what they prefer. If a man will begin with certainties, he shall end in doubts.
But if he will be content to begin with doubts he shall end in certainties. My story is proud. The entry of music essays , truth with chalk to understanding john mark those minds which are capable to lodge and harbour it.
For myself, I found that I was fitted for nothing so well as for the study of truth; as having a Mind nimble and versatile enough to catch the popular essays Resemblances of Things which is the chief point and at essays zeus , the same time steady enough to fix and distinguish their Subtler Differences; as being gifted by Nature with Desire to seek, patience to Doubt, fondness to Meditate, slowness to assert, readiness to consider, carefulness to popular music dispose and set in order; and midwifery essay as being a man that neither affects what is new nor admires what is old, and that hates every kind of Imposture.
So I thought my Nature had a kind of familiarity and Relationship with Truth. Improve Your Critical Thinking, resources at Coping.
The first key is to establish an effective talent management program at the earliest possible opportunity, preferably from the start.
Until an organization gets talent management right, with a high degree of person-job and music person-organization fit, it will have very limited success with its other functions.
The second key to teaching critical thinking skills is to ensure the on sleeping organizational climate values critical and innovative thinking.
Building upon, and bloody essay made possible by, a talent management program, an organization demonstrates its commitment to popular essays these values by expecting and rewarding critical thinking and innovation.
Yet, there is little published in military circles demonstrating a philosophical examination of what critical thinking means; hence, my intent here is to start that conversation.
Midwifery Reflective. Critical thinking means the ability to construct and defend an music argument using reason, applying intellectual standards of epistemic responsibility, and recognizing and countering logical fallacies as we see them in others and ourselves.
If we pay attention to bloody our doctrine, this shift in thinking about professional education is a strategic imperative. The problem is that we have a PME system that relies on an educational approach in which instructors are guides for each new class to rediscover the same hackneyed truths as their predecessors.
Mission command requires that we do more than allow for minor heresies. Army Leadership Development and Leadership local copy , by Hinds and Steele, in Military Review , Jan-Feb Colonels, lieutenant colonels, and chief warrant fives were also surveyed about what skills were lacking for music recent [PME] graduates.
Essay Understanding John. Given these challenges and obstacles, how do we make Army leaders better at popular music essays , creative and critical thinking?
First, we must teach leaders the knowledge, skills, and terminology associated with thinking competencies.
These are acquirable intellectual skills. As suggested earlier, the best way to teach thinking skills to Army leaders is to music provide context-dependent skill development.
UFMCS Liberating Structures Handbook local copy Liberating structures are frameworks that make it possible for people and organizations to create, to do new things, to popular essays be innovative.
These are processes or rules that can be put in place to encourage people to be free, creative, and human understanding audio get results, rather than find themselves oppressed, constrained, confined, or powerless.
For things to really change, structural elements need to change, too. Otherwise change is short-lived. We borrow techniques, methods, frameworks, and best practices from several sources and disciplines to create an education and popular practical application method that we find to be the best safeguard against individual and organizational tendencies toward biases, errors in cognition, and groupthink.
To that end, our curriculum is essays , rich in divergent processes, red teaming tools, and liberating structures, all aimed at decision support.
Critical Thinking issue of Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin local copy , July-September This issue of MIPB focuses on the integration of critical thinking and scientific inquiry throughout the essays military intelligence curricula.
It is our contention that critical thinking and problem solving skills are best taught in learning environments that encourage students to essay competition consistently engage in the implementation of the scientific method.
To do this, instructors come to reflective essay see themselves less as the source of knowledge and more as facilitators of learning. Although most courses within USAIC include practical exercises, many continue to include hours of lecture, followed by objective tests.
Unfortunately, most students do not long retain much of what they have memorized. Conversely, retention increases dramatically when they use what they have learned to conceptualize and to solve problems.
Therefore, critical thinking can be integrated into the curriculum by adjusting teaching styles so that students are challenged to reflect on concrete learning experiences a lecture, a film, a field trip , ask questions, pose hypotheses, and test those hypotheses against reality.
When students are encouraged to use the scientific method on a regular basis, they become actively engaged in critical thinking; and as a result, they will become more sophisticated and effective decisionmakers.
To this end the popular music essays college has introduced the concept of critical thinking as a class within the core curriculum.
However, it remains questionable whether or not the concepts of critical thought, that are taught by the school, have made their way into the course work and class structure within the college.
This thesis will contend that to create critical thinkers CGSC must incorporate the ethics case studies tenets of critical thinking throughout its curriculum and music course design.
Ideally, CGSC can stand as a seminal experience in the development of officers. An experience akin to popular music essays that found in competition civilian graduate level education can be attained, but it will require a cultural revolution within the faculty to transition from popular music essays , a model based on bloody training to a model based on education.
Psychology of Intelligence Analysis local copy , by Heuer, , for CIA -- very good examination of many elements of music , critical thinking, with examples PDF version [from the introduction] Dick Heuer's writings make three fundamental points about the cognitive challenges intelligence analysts face: The mind is poorly "wired" to deal effectively with both inherent uncertainty the natural fog surrounding complex, indeterminate intelligence issues and induced uncertainty the man-made fog fabricated by denial and deception operations.
Electrical Engineering Ethics Studies. Even increased awareness of cognitive and other "unmotivated" biases, such as the tendency to see information confirming an already-held judgment more vividly than one sees "disconfirming" information, does little by itself to help analysts deal effectively with uncertainty.
Tools and techniques that gear the essays analyst's mind to apply higher levels of critical thinking can substantially improve analysis on complex issues on which information is incomplete, ambiguous, and often deliberately distorted.
Essay Human Understanding Locke. Key examples of such intellectual devices include techniques for structuring information, challenging assumptions, and exploring alternative interpretations.
Second, it prompts analysts to detect the essays systemic pathologies that result from closely-coupled networks and to find the linkages among the individual impediments.
Third, it demonstrates that each of these networks, and thus each systemic pathology, usually spans multiple levels within the hierarchy of the Intelligence Community.
Fourth, the framework highlights the need to treat both the systemic pathologies and the individual impediments by focusing effective remedial measures on the right target and at the appropriate level.
Thinking and Writing: Cognitive Science and Intelligence Analysis local copy , by music essays Sinclair, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, Feb revision of monograph We are, in fact, better at generating problems than at solving them.
Rarely can we say unequivocally that we have solved a problem, particularly if it is a hard one. Rather we keep plugging away at electrical engineering ethics case , it heuristically.
The problem has not gone away and essays we do not really delude ourselves that it has. But being realists i. As I have noted, this is essays zeus , a sloppy way of doing business, but we sell ourselves short if we do not acknowledge its strengths.
Eaker College for Professional Development ECPD , This guide is designed to essays on sleeping provide general information, strategies and a step-by-step process on Critical Thinking, two lesson plans which can be helpful in effectively teaching Critical Thinking, a case study which lends itself to thinking critically to come to essays a desirable resolution, and lastly, some recommended reading resources for essays zeus providing a foundation to and assisting instructors in the classroom and with student consultation.
It is not a comprehensive overview of how intelligence officers conduct analysis. Rather, the primer highlights how structured analytic techniques can help one challenge judgments, identify mental mindsets, stimulate creativity, and manage uncertainty.
In short, incorporating regular use of techniques such as these can enable one to structure thinking for music wrestling with difficult questions.
CIA Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes local copy - "CIA has made this edition  of the compendium available to the public to help shed light on how the Directorate of Intelligence meets the daily challenges of providing timely, accurate, and rigorous analysis to intelligence consumers" Critical Thinking: Plugging or Moving a Hole in Our Swiss Cheese local copy , by Johns, Assistant U.
CT training reduces normal human decision error in individual and reflective group processes. Individual CT can reduce or, in a specific case, close a hole in the Swiss Cheese model.
In a group, CT can also move the engineering hole out of alignment. Combining CT training with Decision Support System improvements has reduced decision error in the military as shown by tests with active duty warfighters in battlefield simulations.
Identifies and concerning understanding audio considers OTHER salient perspectives and positions that are important to the analysis. Identifies and assesses the key assumptions.
Identifies and popular considers the influence of the context on essays zeus the issue. David K. I - Test the I nference, or argument T - Test the T ruth of the music essays R O - Construct the essays zeus strongest imaginable O bjections, and popular music respond to essay them.
Active Learning Strategies to popular essays Promote Critical Thinking, by Walker, William Paterson University - a good summary of educational references regarding critical thinking.
Evaluating Critical Thinking Skills local copy , from U. Naval Academy's Center for music Teaching and Learning -- criteria-based evaluation guide.
Manual of Job-Related Thinking Skills local copy , Department of Homeland Security - including deductive reasoning, reasoning with sets, inductive reasoning about real-world events, and bloody statistical reasoning - includes quizzes throughout.
Army officers are increasingly required to operate in situations they have not previously encountered and for which they have not been trained.
In these situations, the ability to critically think through a problem, rather than apply previously learned solutions and popular music essays procedures, is crucial to Army success.
This effort began in essays on sleeping , with the development of a theoretical model of critical thinking and the identification of eight high pay-off critical thinking skills for Army Battle Command.
Recognize main point in a message. Visualize plans to see if they achieve goals. Construct a plausible story that ties all incidents together.
Engineering Ethics. Generalize from essays , specific instances to broader classes. Adopt multiple perspectives in essays zeus interpreting events.
Determine when to seek more information. The research had two main goals: First, to draw a map that links disparate regions of the critical thinking field, and second, to use the map to navigate toward a more insightful theory of critical thinking, which will support the development more effective methods for improving it in Army battlefield command teams.
The essence of bloody essay , our theory is popular , that critical thinking skill is exemplified by asking questions about alternative possibilities in order to achieve some objective.
Asking and answering questions is midwifery reflective essay , a skill of dialogue. Alternative possibilities are represented by mental models.
A process of questioning mental models is adopted because of its reliability for achieving the purposes of the participants within the music available time.
Difficulty in thinking like the enemy Focused on essay concerning understanding making quick decisions before fully analyzing the situation Inadequate monitoring of the popular essays situation or responding to cues in essays zeus the environment Difficulty translating orders from higher echelons into actions Tunnel vision Overly focused on distracters; not on the big picture Difficulty shifting roles e.
And How and Where and music essays Who. An explanation should be as simple and direct as possible" Einstein's version -- "make things as simple as possible - but no simpler" modern variation -- Keep It Simple Stupid KISS Sherlock Holmes "I have already explained to you that what is out of the common is usually a guide rather than a hindrance.
In solving a problem of this sort, the grand thing is to be able to reason backward. That is a very useful accomplishment, and a very easy one, but people do not practise it much.
In the everyday affairs of popular essays , life it is more useful to reason forward, and so the other comes to be neglected. There are fifty who can reason synthetically for one who can reason analytically.
It may well be that several explanations remain, in which case one tries test after test until one or other of them has a convincing amount of support.
Insensibly one begins to won prize competition twist facts to suit theories, instead of theories to suit facts.
So how do we sort through the deluge? At the essays zeus TEDSalon in London, Markham Nolan shares the popular investigative techniques he and his team use to verify information in real-time, to bloody let you know if that Statue of Liberty image has been doctored or if that video leaked from Syria is legitimate.
Even for the physicist the description in plain language will be a criterion of the degree of understanding that has been reached.
This was the pivotal insight of the Scientific Revolution: that the advancement of knowledge depends on current theories collapsing in essay the face of new insights and popular music discoveries.
In this model of progress, errors do no lead us away from the truth. Instead they edge us incrementally toward it. Steps of the scientific method from CDC site Name the problem or question Form an educated guess hypothesis of the cause of the problem and make predictions based upon the hypothesis Test your hypothesis by doing an experiment or study with proper controls Check and interpret your results Report your results to the scientific community.
Scientific Method Man, article in Wired , Sep - discussing "verifier approach" to problem solution, as used by Gordon Rugg With the verifier approach, Rugg begins by asking experts to draw a mental map of their field.
From there, he stitches together many maps to form an atlas of the universe of knowledge on the subject. In their zeal to get to an answer, they make many little mistakes.
A recent study of work published in Nature and British Medical Journal , for example, found that 11 percent of papers had serious statistical errors.
Experts unknowingly fudge logic to square data with their hypotheses. Or they develop blind spots after years of working in isolation.
They lose their ability to take a broader view. If all this is true, he says, think of how much big science is based on flawed intuition.
The verifier method boils down to seven steps: 1 amass knowledge of a discipline through interviews and essays zeus reading; 2 determine whether critical expertise has yet to be applied in music the field; 3 look for bias and mistakenly held assumptions in the research; 4 analyze jargon to uncover differing definitions of essays zeus , key terms; 5 check for popular music essays classic mistakes using human-error tools; 6 follow the errors as they ripple through underlying assumptions; 7 suggest new avenues for essays zeus research that emerge from steps one through six.
This model is based on the OODA Loop and will make it easier for Air Force members to eliminate waste in popular music essays the workplace.
Process and Design Everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler. A designer knows he has achieved perfection not when there is nothing left to essays zeus add, but when there is nothing left to take away.
Officers who have a broad body of knowledge gained through experience and electrical case studies extensive study and capable of identifying and evaluating potential military response options within the popular music essays context of a grand strategy are necessary to achieve the goals of the nation.
The development of such officers requires a shift in their extensive focus from the operational and tactical environments to sunday the strategic environment.
The aim of the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff, is to educate strategically minded officers with the ability to view military affairs in the broadest context.
This essay posits that integrating design as a process within JOPP is a shortsighted attempt to legislate thinking whereas the more appropriate option would be to develop officers capable of music essays , design thinking.
To develop senior officers who possess the requisite worldview, critical and creative thinking must underpin the concept of design.
Senior officers must understand the role constraints play within design and how the strategic environment is affected. In addition, the essays zeus unique skills that specific personality types possess that make strategic-thinking and design thinking more inherently natural must be recognized and promoted.
Strategically minded thinkers possess the ability to think critically and creatively. To think critically, one needs the ability to break concepts or objects into simpler parts and understand the relationship and organization of the parts relative to the whole.
To think creatively, one needs the ability to rearrange the music essays components or ideas into a new whole; in sunday other words, to produce something through imaginative skill.
Although some critical and creative thinkers are naturally gifted, given enough time almost anyone can develop these necessary skills.
Unfortunately, for the majority of senior military leaders, time is essays zeus , something that is essays , not in vast supply.
In fact, given the relatively short duration of time that senior officers spend operating in the strategic environment and bloody sunday essay the even shorter periods they serve in music essays any one position, it is reflective essay , a natural desire to attempt to develop a checklist or shortcut that will guide these officers through the wicked problems rife within complex environments.
The critical thing about the design process is to identify your scarcest resource. You have to make sure your whole team understands what scarce resource you're optimizing.
You build a quick prototype and get it in front of users to popular see what they do with it. You will always be surprised. Edwin Land, inventor of the Polaroid camera, once said that his method of design was to start with a vision of what you want and then, one by one, remove the technical obstacles until you have it.
Human Understanding Locke. I once argued that every member of essays , a team should be able to see the code of engineering , every other member, but it turns out that encapsulation works much better.
Problem Solving The one common experience of all humanity is the challenge of problems. I am enthusiastic over humanity's extraordinary and sometimes very timely ingenuities.
If you are in a shipwreck and all the boats are gone, a piano top buoyant enough to keep you afloat may come along and music make a fortuitous life preserver.
Engineering Ethics Studies. This is not to say, though, that the music essays best way to design a life preserver is in the form of a piano top.
I think we are clinging to a great many piano tops in essays zeus accepting yesterday's fortuitous contrivings as constituting the only means for essays solving a given problem.
If I had an hour to solve a problem and my life depended on the solution, I would spend the concerning understanding john audio first 55 minutes determining the proper question to ask, for once I know the popular proper question, I could solve the problem in essays zeus less than five minutes.
Intellectuals solve problems; geniuses prevent them. We can't solve problems by using the same kind of music , thinking we used when we created them.
The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small. If a problem has no solution, it may not be a problem, but a fact - not to be solved, but to be coped with over time.
Army Research Institute ARI , Research Report , Jan Preparing Soldiers to learn from problem-solving experiences requires that Army instructional practices become more responsive to individual student need, better attuned to operational requirements, and popular more representative of social learning contexts.
To help instructors achieve this goal, the principles for facilitating problem-based learning must be investigated and their implications for bloody essay professional development explicated.
In this research, the instructor characteristics and competencies required to implement problem-based learning were explored.
Techniques for instructor professional development in civilian and military contexts then were examined to identify best practices.
No one has traveled faster than the crew of Apollo Since the last flight of the supersonic Concorde in essays , civilian travel has become slower.
Blithe optimism about technology's powers has evaporated, too, as big problems that people had imagined technology would solve, such as hunger, poverty, malaria, climate change, cancer, and the diseases of old age, have come to seem intractably hard.
It's not true that we can't solve big problems through technology; we can. We must. But all these elements must be present: political leaders and essays on sleeping the public must care to solve a problem, our institutions must support its solution, it must really be a technological problem, and we must understand it.
Storytelling as an music Instructional Method: Definitions and Research Questions local copy , by Andrews et al, sponsored by AFRL, published in The Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-based Learning , Fall - deals with problem-based instruction, scenario-based instruction, case-based instruction, and narrative-based instruction.
This model is based on the OODA Loop and will make it easier for Air Force members to eliminate waste in understanding locke the workplace.
Planning Primer, U. Army Corps of Engineers, 23 pages -- includes discussion of problem-solving process local copy Planning Manual, U.
Army Corps of Engineers, pages -- includes discussion of problem-solving process local copy Six-Step Problem Solving Process, as used by Army Corps of Engineers Identifying problems and opportunities Inventorying and forecasting conditions Formulating alternative plans Evaluating alternative plans Comparing alternative plans Selecting a plan.
Wicked Problems Some problems are so complex that you have to bloody sunday be highly intelligent and well informed just to be undecided about them.
First, a problem-focused approach which prioritizes a robust knowledge of the environment from which the essays problem has emerged.
Second, a solution-focused approach that emphasizes the understanding john locke audio power of proposing solutions as the vehicle to gain understanding of the popular essays ill-structured problem.
By providing a robust explanation of ill-structured problems, it can then be shown that existing Army doctrine proves adequate to address and resolve complex operational problems.
Command at the Edge of Chaos local copy , by Schwartz, Naval War College, 28 May Traditional hierarchical military staff organizations at the operational level of essays zeus , command remain suited for executing status quo and slowly evolving military operations focused on simple problems.
Replacing traditional staff structures with flat, self-organizing networks at popular essays , the operational level of command and war will allow commanders to essays zeus efficiently synchronize vast resources and more effectively attack rapidly evolving, complex and wicked problems.
The cost to the commander is a requirement to cede control to the network while retaining command thereof. This paper looks at the limitations of hierarchical organizations, the advantages of leveraging self-organizing networks in popular a contemporary military context, and how such networks should be created and sunday commanded.
Finally, the paper provides recommendations to operational commanders concerning when and how to popular music employ self-organizing networks within operational level staffs.
Constant reframing and essays on sleeping assessment are necessary to identify this throughout planning and operations.
Wicked problems have no stopping rule. Solutions to essays on sleeping wicked problems are not true-or-false, but better or worse. There is no immediate and essays no ultimate test of concerning understanding audio , a solution to a wicked problem.
Every solution to a wicked problem is a "one-shot operation"; because there is no opportunity to music learn by trial and error, every attempt counts significantly.
Wicked problems do not have an enumerable or an exhaustively describable set of potential solutions, nor is there a well-described set of permissible operations that may be incorporated into the plan.
Every wicked problem is essentially unique. Every wicked problem can be considered to be a symptom of another problem. The existence of a discrepancy representing a wicked problem can be explained in numerous ways.
The choice of explanation determines the nature of the problem's resolution. The planner has no right to be wrong planners are liable for the consequences of the actions they generate.
Sandia research team studies best way to solve wicked problems local copy , Sandia National Labs, 29 Nov Wicked problems are complex problems that change when you apply a solution.
Essay Concerning Understanding. Davidson and his research team at Sandia National Laboratories attempted to popular resolve this summer.
Generally, when electronic group brainstorming is compared to face-to-face brainstorming, it is touted as having the advantages of shorter meetings, increased participation by essay remote team members, better documentation via electronic recording, and music essays cash savings.
But the Sandia research suggests that people working to solve problems on their own might involve less time and, thus less expenses, than electronic group brainstorming.
While individuals working alone nominally faired better in this study, Davidson says, the research also indicates that group on-line brainstorming can be effective when ideas are needed from reflective , large numbers of people.
Army War College, 17 Mar - explores a wicked problem through the lens of the essays 10 characteristics of essays zeus , a wicked problem from Rittel and Webber There is No Definitive Way to popular music Frame a Wicked Problem.
Every Wicked Problem is Essentially Unique. What Are Wicked Problems? Conklin draws his definition from the work of the late urban planner Horst Rittel, who coined the term over thirty years ago: You don't understand the problem until you have developed a solution.
You simply run out of time or money. Solutions to wicked problems are not right or wrong. They are "better," "worse," "good enough," or "not good enough.
Every solution to a wicked problem is a "one-shot operation. So where does that leave the project manager? Short term thinking drives out essays , long term strategy, every time.
See also tactical decision games contrasting intuitive and analytic approaches. See also combat leadership , including key historical decisions.
Army War College, Decision-making frameworks for policy levels are important for strategic leaders to appreciate how they can best influence decisions in their external environment.
Human Audio. The following models presented in essays this article are drawn from the sunday social psychology, organizational behavior, sociology, and public administration literature.
The demands of the Irregular Warfare require small unit leaders within the bloody sunday General Purpose Forces to be more culturally aware; intellectually adaptable; seasoned in their decision-making requiring fundamental changes in the way they are educated, trained, and popular gain experience.
This paper will first address how individuals make decisions by essays comparing and contrasting analytical and intuitive decision-making.
Second, it will address the strengths and weaknesses in current training and bloody essay educational paradigms via an analysis of the Systems Approach to Training.
Third will be a proposal for the inclusion of new initiatives for developing small unit leader intuition and essays adaptability in bloody sunday essay IW.
Following this are recommendations for inculcating critical thinking and decision-making skills in small unit leaders by adopting methods of instruction found in popular music Outcomes Based Training and Education and Adaptive Leaders Methodology as well as the experiential based learning that immersive training environments provide.