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When the Emancipation Proclamation went into effect in January , ex-slaves were energetically recruited by the states and used to meet the state quotas.

States and local communities offered higher and higher cash bonuses for white volunteers. Congress tightened the law in March Men selected in the draft could provide substitutes or, until mid, pay commutation money.

Many eligibles pooled their money to cover the cost of anyone drafted. Families used the substitute provision to select which man should go into the army and which should stay home.

There was much evasion and overt resistance to the draft, especially in Catholic areas. The draft riot in New York City in July involved Irish immigrants who had been signed up as citizens to swell the vote of the city's Democratic political machine , not realizing it made them liable for the draft.

In both the North and South, the draft laws were highly unpopular. In the North, some , men evaded conscription, many of them fleeing to Canada, and another , soldiers deserted during the war.

From a tiny frontier force in , the Union and Confederate armies had grown into the "largest and most efficient armies in the world" within a few years.

European observers at the time dismissed them as amateur and unprofessional, but British historian John Keegan concluded that each outmatched the French, Prussian and Russian armies of the time, and but for the Atlantic, would have threatened any of them with defeat.

The number of women who served as soldiers during the war is estimated at between and , although an accurate count is impossible because the women had to disguise themselves as men.

Women also served on the Union hospital ship Red Rover and nursed Union and Confederate troops at field hospitals. Mary Edwards Walker , the only woman to ever receive the Medal of Honor , served in the Union Army and was given the medal for her efforts to treat the wounded during the war.

Her name was deleted from the Army Medal of Honor Roll in along with over other, male MOH recipients ; however, it was restored in Perman and Taylor write that historians are of two minds on why millions of men seemed so eager to fight, suffer and die over four years:.

Some historians emphasize that Civil War soldiers were driven by political ideology, holding firm beliefs about the importance of liberty, Union, or state rights, or about the need to protect or to destroy slavery.

Others point to less overtly political reasons to fight, such as the defense of one's home and family, or the honor and brotherhood to be preserved when fighting alongside other men.

Most historians agree that no matter what a soldier thought about when he went into the war, the experience of combat affected him profoundly and sometimes altered his reasons for continuing the fight.

At the start of the civil war, a system of paroles operated. Captives agreed not to fight until they were officially exchanged.

Meanwhile, they were held in camps run by their army. They were paid, but they were not allowed to perform any military duties.

After that, about 56, of the , POWs died in prisons during the war, accounting for nearly 10 percent of the conflict's fatalities. The small U.

Navy of was rapidly enlarged to 6, officers and 45, men in , with vessels, having a tonnage of , The U.

In the East, the Navy supplied and moved army forces about and occasionally shelled Confederate installations.

The Civil War occurred during the early stages of the industrial revolution. Many naval innovations emerged during this time, most notably the advent of the ironclad warship.

It began when the Confederacy, knowing they had to meet or match the Union's naval superiority, responded to the Union blockade by building or converting more than vessels, including twenty-six ironclads and floating batteries.

Many were equipped with ram bows, creating "ram fever" among Union squadrons wherever they threatened.

But in the face of overwhelming Union superiority and the Union's ironclad warships, they were unsuccessful. In addition to ocean-going warships coming up the Mississippi, the Union Navy used timberclads, tinclads, and armored gunboats.

Shipyards at Cairo, Illinois, and St. Louis built new boats or modified steamboats for action. The resulting three hour Battle of Hampton Roads was a draw, but it proved that ironclads were effective warships.

Lacking the technology and infrastructure to build effective warships, the Confederacy attempted to obtain warships from Britain. By early , General Winfield Scott had devised the Anaconda Plan to win the war with as little bloodshed as possible.

Lincoln adopted parts of the plan, but he overruled Scott's caution about day volunteers. Public opinion, however, demanded an immediate attack by the army to capture Richmond.

In April , Lincoln announced the Union blockade of all Southern ports; commercial ships could not get insurance and regular traffic ended.

The South blundered in embargoing cotton exports in before the blockade was effective; by the time they realized the mistake, it was too late.

The blockade shut down the ten Confederate seaports with railheads that moved almost all the cotton, especially New Orleans, Mobile, and Charleston.

By June , warships were stationed off the principal Southern ports, and a year later nearly ships were in service.

British investors built small, fast, steam-driven blockade runners that traded arms and luxuries brought in from Britain through Bermuda, Cuba, and the Bahamas in return for high-priced cotton.

Many of the ships were designed for speed and were so small that only a small amount of cotton went out. The Southern economy nearly collapsed during the war.

There were multiple reasons for this: the severe deterioration of food supplies, especially in cities, the failure of Southern railroads, the loss of control of the main rivers, foraging by Northern armies, and the seizure of animals and crops by Confederate armies.

Most historians agree that the blockade was a major factor in ruining the Confederate economy; however, Wise argues that the blockade runners provided just enough of a lifeline to allow Lee to continue fighting for additional months, thanks to fresh supplies of , rifles, lead, blankets, and boots that the homefront economy could no longer supply.

Surdam argues that the blockade was a powerful weapon that eventually ruined the Southern economy, at the cost of few lives in combat.

Practically, the entire Confederate cotton crop was useless although it was sold to Union traders , costing the Confederacy its main source of income.

Critical imports were scarce and the coastal trade was largely ended as well. Merchant ships owned in Europe could not get insurance and were too slow to evade the blockade, so they stopped calling at Confederate ports.

To fight an offensive war, the Confederacy purchased ships from Britain, converted them to warships, and raided American merchant ships in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.

Insurance rates skyrocketed and the American flag virtually disappeared from international waters. However, the same ships were reflagged with European flags and continued unmolested.

Although the Confederacy hoped that Britain and France would join them against the Union, this was never likely, and so they instead tried to bring Britain and France in as mediators.

Seward worked to block this, and threatened war if any country officially recognized the existence of the Confederate States of America.

In , Southerners voluntarily embargoed cotton shipments, hoping to start an economic depression in Europe that would force Britain to enter the war to get cotton, but this did not work.

Worse, Europe developed other cotton suppliers, which they found superior, hindering the South's recovery after the war.

Cotton diplomacy proved a failure as Europe had a surplus of cotton, while the —62 crop failures in Europe made the North's grain exports of critical importance.

It also helped to turn European opinion further away from the Confederacy. Meanwhile, the war created employment for arms makers, ironworkers, and British ships to transport weapons.

Lincoln's administration failed to appeal to European public opinion. Diplomats explained that the United States was not committed to the ending of slavery, and instead repeated legalistic arguments about the unconstitutionality of secession.

Confederate representatives, on the other hand, were much more successful by ignoring slavery and instead focusing on their struggle for liberty, their commitment to free trade, and the essential role of cotton in the European economy.

The European aristocracy was "absolutely gleeful in pronouncing the American debacle as proof that the entire experiment in popular government had failed.

European government leaders welcomed the fragmentation of the ascendant American Republic. However, public opinion against slavery created a political liability for politicians in Britain, where the antislavery movement was powerful.

War loomed in late between the U. Navy's boarding of the British ship Trent and seizure of two Confederate diplomats. However, London and Washington were able to smooth over the problem after Lincoln released the two.

In , the British considered mediation between North and South, though even such an offer would have risked war with the United States.

The Union victory in the Battle of Antietam caused them to delay this decision. The Emancipation Proclamation over time would reinforce the political liability of supporting the Confederacy.

Despite sympathy for the Confederacy, France's seizure of Mexico ultimately deterred them from war with the Union.

Confederate offers late in the war to end slavery in return for diplomatic recognition were not seriously considered by London or Paris.

After , the Polish revolt against Russia further distracted the European powers, and ensured that they would remain neutral. The Eastern theater refers to the military operations east of the Appalachian Mountains , including the states of Virginia , West Virginia , Maryland , and Pennsylvania , the District of Columbia , and the coastal fortifications and seaports of North Carolina.

George B. McClellan took command of the Union Army of the Potomac on July 26 he was briefly general-in-chief of all the Union armies, but was subsequently relieved of that post in favor of Maj.

Henry W. Halleck , and the war began in earnest in The Union strategy called for simultaneous advances along four axes: [].

The Army originated as the Confederate Army of the Potomac , which was organized on June 20, , from all operational forces in northern Virginia.

The Army of the Peninsula was merged into it on April 12, When Virginia declared its secession in April , Robert E. Lee chose to follow his home state, despite his desire for the country to remain intact and an offer of a senior Union command.

Lee's biographer, Douglas S. Freeman , asserts that the army received its final name from Lee when he issued orders assuming command on June 1, Johnston , his predecessor in army command, before that date and referred to Johnston's command as the Army of Northern Virginia.

Part of the confusion results from the fact that Johnston commanded the Department of Northern Virginia as of October 22, and the name Army of Northern Virginia can be seen as an informal consequence of its parent department's name.

Jefferson Davis and Johnston did not adopt the name, but it is clear that the organization of units as of March 14 was the same organization that Lee received on June 1, and thus it is generally referred to today as the Army of Northern Virginia, even if that is correct only in retrospect.

Jackson assigned Jeb Stuart to command all the cavalry companies of the Army of the Shenandoah.

He eventually commanded the Army of Northern Virginia's cavalry. In one of the first highly visible battles, in July , a march by Union troops under the command of Maj.

Irvin McDowell on the Confederate forces led by Gen. The Union had the upper hand at first, nearly pushing confederate forces holding a defensive position into a rout, but Confederate reinforcements under.

Joseph E. Johnston arrived from the Shenandoah Valley by railroad, and the course of the battle quickly changed. A brigade of Virginians under the relatively unknown brigadier general from the Virginia Military Institute , Thomas J.

Jackson, stood its ground, which resulted in Jackson receiving his famous nickname, "Stonewall". Upon the strong urging of President Lincoln to begin offensive operations, McClellan attacked Virginia in the spring of by way of the peninsula between the York River and James River , southeast of Richmond.

McClellan's army reached the gates of Richmond in the Peninsula Campaign , [] [] []. Banks and John C. Fremont , preventing them from reinforcing the Union offensive against Richmond.

The swiftness of Jackson's men earned them the nickname of " foot cavalry ". Lee assumed his position of command. Lincoln then restored Pope's troops to McClellan.

Antietam is considered a Union victory because it halted Lee's invasion of the North and provided an opportunity for Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.

When the cautious McClellan failed to follow up on Antietam, he was replaced by Maj. Ambrose Burnside. Burnside was soon defeated at the Battle of Fredericksburg [] on December 13, , when more than 12, Union soldiers were killed or wounded during repeated futile frontal assaults against Marye's Heights.

After the battle, Burnside was replaced by Maj. Joseph Hooker. Hooker, too, proved unable to defeat Lee's army; despite outnumbering the Confederates by more than two to one, his Chancellorsville Campaign proved ineffective and he was humiliated in the Battle of Chancellorsville in May Stonewall Jackson was shot in the arm by accidental friendly fire during the battle and subsequently died of complications.

The fiercest fighting of the battle—and the second bloodiest day of the Civil War—occurred on May 3 as Lee launched multiple attacks against the Union position at Chancellorsville.

That same day, John Sedgwick advanced across the Rappahannock River , defeated the small Confederate force at Marye's Heights in the Second Battle of Fredericksburg , and then moved to the west.

The Confederates fought a successful delaying action at the Battle of Salem Church. Hooker was replaced by Maj.

George Meade during Lee's second invasion of the North , in June. Meade defeated Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg July 1 to 3, Pickett's Charge on July 3 is often considered the high-water mark of the Confederacy because it signaled the collapse of serious Confederate threats of victory.

Lee's army suffered 28, casualties versus Meade's 23, After Meade's inconclusive fall campaign, Lincoln turned to the Western Theater for new leadership.

At the same time, the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg surrendered, giving the Union control of the Mississippi River, permanently isolating the western Confederacy, and producing the new leader Lincoln needed, Ulysses S.

The primary Confederate force in the Western theater was the Army of Tennessee. While the Confederate forces had numerous successes in the Eastern Theater, they were defeated many times in the West.

The Union's key strategist and tactician in the West was Ulysses S. Grant, who won victories at Forts Henry February 6, and Donelson February 11 to 16, , earning him the nickname of "Unconditional Surrender" Grant, by which the Union seized control of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers.

Nathan Bedford Forrest rallied nearly 4, Confederate troops and led them to escape across the Cumberland. Nashville and central Tennessee thus fell to the Union, leading to attrition of local food supplies and livestock and a breakdown in social organization.

Leonidas Polk 's invasion of Columbus ended Kentucky's policy of neutrality and turned it against the Confederacy. Although rebuffed at Belmont, Grant cut off Columbus.

The Confederates, lacking their gunboats, were forced to retreat and the Union took control of western Kentucky and opened Tennessee in March At the Battle of Shiloh Pittsburg Landing , in Tennessee in April , the Confederates made a surprise attack that pushed Union forces against the river as night fell.

Overnight, the Navy landed additional reinforcements, and Grant counter-attacked. Grant and the Union won a decisive victory—the first battle with the high casualty rates that would repeat over and over.

One of the early Union objectives in the war was the capture of the Mississippi River , to cut the Confederacy in half.

Naval forces under Farragut ran past Confederate defenses south of New Orleans. Confederate forces abandoned the city, giving the Union a critical anchor in the deep South.

Memphis fell to Union forces on June 6, , and became a key base for further advances south along the Mississippi River.

Only the fortress city of Vicksburg , Mississippi, prevented Union control of the entire river. Bragg's second invasion of Kentucky in the Confederate Heartland Offensive included initial successes such as Kirby Smith 's triumph at the Battle of Richmond and the capture of the Kentucky capital of Frankfort on September 3, Don Carlos Buell at the Battle of Perryville.

Bragg was forced to end his attempt at invading Kentucky and retreat due to lack of logistical support and lack of infantry recruits for the Confederacy in that state.

Bragg was narrowly defeated by Maj. Naval forces assisted Grant in the long, complex Vicksburg Campaign that resulted in the Confederates surrendering at the Battle of Vicksburg in July , which cemented Union control of the Mississippi River and is considered one of the turning points of the war.

The one clear Confederate victory in the West was the Battle of Chickamauga. James Longstreet's corps from Lee's army in the east , defeated Rosecrans, despite the heroic defensive stand of Maj.

George Henry Thomas. Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga , which Bragg then besieged in the Chattanooga Campaign. Grant marched to the relief of Rosecrans and defeated Bragg at the Third Battle of Chattanooga , [] eventually causing Longstreet to abandon his Knoxville Campaign and driving Confederate forces out of Tennessee and opening a route to Atlanta and the heart of the Confederacy.

The Trans-Mississippi theater refers to military operations west of the Mississippi River, not including the areas bordering the Pacific Ocean.

Extensive guerrilla warfare characterized the trans-Mississippi region, as the Confederacy lacked the troops and the logistics to support regular armies that could challenge Union control.

These partisans could not be entirely driven out of the state of Missouri until an entire regular Union infantry division was engaged.

By , these violent activities harmed the nationwide anti-war movement organizing against the re-election of Lincoln. Missouri not only stayed in the Union but Lincoln took 70 percent of the vote for re-election.

Numerous small-scale military actions south and west of Missouri sought to control Indian Territory and New Mexico Territory for the Union.

The Union repulsed Confederate incursions into New Mexico in , and the exiled Arizona government withdrew into Texas.

In the Indian Territory, civil war broke out within tribes. About 12, Indian warriors fought for the Confederacy and smaller numbers for the Union.

Although he lacked resources to beat Union armies, he built up a formidable arsenal at Tyler, along with his own Kirby Smithdom economy, a virtual "independent fiefdom" in Texas, including railroad construction and international smuggling.

The Union, in turn, did not directly engage him. The Lower Seaboard theater refers to military and naval operations that occurred near the coastal areas of the Southeast Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas as well as the southern part of the Mississippi River Port Hudson and south.

Union Naval activities were dictated by the Anaconda Plan. One of the earliest battles of the war was fought at Port Royal Sound , south of Charleston.

Much of the war along the South Carolina coast concentrated on capturing Charleston. In attempting to capture Charleston, the Union military tried two approaches, by land over James or Morris Islands or through the harbor.

However, the Confederates were able to drive back each Union attack. One of the most famous of the land attacks was the Second Battle of Fort Wagner , in which the 54th Massachusetts Infantry took part.

The Federals suffered a serious defeat in this battle, losing 1, men while the Confederates lost only Fort Pulaski on the Georgia coast was an early target for the Union navy.

Following the capture of Port Royal, an expedition was organized with engineer troops under the command of Captain Quincy A.

Gillmore , forcing a Confederate surrender. The Union army occupied the fort for the rest of the war after repairing. Porter attacked Forts Jackson and St.

Philip , which guarded the river approach to New Orleans from the south. While part of the fleet bombarded the forts, other vessels forced a break in the obstructions in the river and enabled the rest of the fleet to steam upriver to the city.

A Union army force commanded by Major General Benjamin Butler landed near the forts and forced their surrender.

Butler's controversial command of New Orleans earned him the nickname "Beast". Banks laid siege to Port Hudson for nearly eight weeks, the longest siege in US military history.

The Confederates attempted to defend with the Bayou Teche Campaign , but surrendered after Vicksburg. These two surrenders gave the Union control over the entire Mississippi.

Several small skirmishes were fought in Florida, but no major battles. The biggest was the Battle of Olustee in early The Pacific Coast theater refers to military operations on the Pacific Ocean and in the states and Territories west of the Continental Divide.

At the beginning of , Lincoln made Grant commander of all Union armies. Grant made his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac and put Maj.

William Tecumseh Sherman in command of most of the western armies. Grant understood the concept of total war and believed, along with Lincoln and Sherman, that only the utter defeat of Confederate forces and their economic base would end the war.

This policy I believe exercised a material influence in hastening the end. Averell were to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia , and Maj.

Nathaniel P. Banks was to capture Mobile , Alabama. Grant's army set out on the Overland Campaign intending to draw Lee into a defense of Richmond, where they would attempt to pin down and destroy the Confederate army.

The Union army first attempted to maneuver past Lee and fought several battles, notably at the Wilderness , Spotsylvania , and Cold Harbor.

These battles resulted in heavy losses on both sides and forced Lee's Confederates to fall back repeatedly.

An attempt to outflank Lee from the south failed under Butler, who was trapped inside the Bermuda Hundred river bend.

Each battle resulted in setbacks for the Union that mirrored what they had suffered under prior generals, though unlike those prior generals, Grant fought on rather than retreat.

While Lee was preparing for an attack on Richmond, Grant unexpectedly turned south to cross the James River and began the protracted Siege of Petersburg , where the two armies engaged in trench warfare for over nine months.

Grant finally found a commander, General Philip Sheridan, aggressive enough to prevail in the Valley Campaigns of Sheridan was initially repelled at the Battle of New Market by former U.

John C. After redoubling his efforts, Sheridan defeated Maj. Jubal A. Early in a series of battles, including a final decisive defeat at the Battle of Cedar Creek.

Sheridan then proceeded to destroy the agricultural base of the Shenandoah Valley , a strategy similar to the tactics Sherman later employed in Georgia.

Johnston and John Bell Hood along the way. The fall of Atlanta on September 2, , guaranteed the reelection of Lincoln as president.

Union Maj. Thomas dealt Hood a massive defeat at the Battle of Nashville , effectively destroying Hood's army. Leaving Atlanta, and his base of supplies, Sherman's army marched with an unknown destination, laying waste to about 20 percent of the farms in Georgia in his " March to the Sea ".

Sherman's army was followed by thousands of freed slaves; there were no major battles along the March. Sherman turned north through South Carolina and North Carolina to approach the Confederate Virginia lines from the south, increasing the pressure on Lee's army.

Lee's army, thinned by desertion and casualties, was now much smaller than Grant's. One last Confederate attempt to break the Union hold on Petersburg failed at the decisive Battle of Five Forks sometimes called "the Waterloo of the Confederacy" on April 1.

This meant that the Union now controlled the entire perimeter surrounding Richmond-Petersburg, completely cutting it off from the Confederacy.

Realizing that the capital was now lost, Lee decided to evacuate his army. The remaining Confederate units fled west after a defeat at Sayler's Creek.

Initially, Lee did not intend to surrender but planned to regroup at the village of Appomattox Court House , where supplies were to be waiting and then continue the war.

Grant chased Lee and got in front of him so that when Lee's army reached Appomattox Court House, they were surrounded. After an initial battle, Lee decided that the fight was now hopeless, and surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, , at the McLean House.

Lincoln died early the next morning and Lincoln's vice president, Andrew Johnson , became the 17th president.

Meanwhile, Confederate forces across the South surrendered as news of Lee's surrender reached them. It proved to be the largest surrender of Confederate forces.

On May 4th, all remaining Confederate forces in Alabama and Mississippi surrendered. President Johnson officially declared an end to the insurrection on May 9, ; Confederate president, Jefferson Davis , was captured the following day.

The causes of the war , the reasons for its outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of lingering contention today. The North and West grew rich while the once-rich South became poor for a century.

The national political power of the slaveowners and rich Southerners ended. Historians are less sure about the results of the postwar Reconstruction, especially regarding the second-class citizenship of the Freedmen and their poverty.

Historians have debated whether the Confederacy could have won the war. Most scholars, including James McPherson , argue that Confederate victory was at least possible.

He also argues that if the Confederacy had fought using unconventional tactics, they would have more easily been able to hold out long enough to exhaust the Union.

Confederates did not need to invade and hold enemy territory to win but only needed to fight a defensive war to convince the North that the cost of winning was too high.

The North needed to conquer and hold vast stretches of enemy territory and defeat Confederate armies to win. The Confederacy sought to win independence by out-lasting Lincoln; however, after Atlanta fell and Lincoln defeated McClellan in the election of , all hope for a political victory for the South ended.

At that point, Lincoln had secured the support of the Republicans, War Democrats, the border states, emancipated slaves, and the neutrality of Britain and France.

By defeating the Democrats and McClellan, he also defeated the Copperheads and their peace platform. Many scholars argue that the Union held an insurmountable long-term advantage over the Confederacy in industrial strength and population.

Confederate actions, they argue, only delayed defeat. If there had been more Southern victories, and a lot more, the North simply would have brought that other hand out from behind its back.

I don't think the South ever had a chance to win that War. A minority view among historians is that the Confederacy lost because, as E.

Merton Coulter put it, "people did not will hard enough and long enough to win. Wilson , in The Collapse of the Confederacy , "internal conflict should figure prominently in any explanation of Confederate defeat.

He argues that the non-owner soldiers grew embittered about fighting to preserve slavery and fought less enthusiastically. He attributes the major Confederate defeats in at Vicksburg and Missionary Ridge to this class conflict.

McPherson , after reading thousands of letters written by Confederate soldiers, found strong patriotism that continued to the end; they truly believed they were fighting for freedom and liberty.

Even as the Confederacy was visibly collapsing in —65, he says most Confederate soldiers were fighting hard. Also important were Lincoln's eloquence in rationalizing the national purpose and his skill in keeping the border states committed to the Union cause.

The Emancipation Proclamation was an effective use of the President's war powers. Southern leaders needed to get European powers to help break up the blockade the Union had created around the Southern ports and cities.

Lincoln's naval blockade was 95 percent effective at stopping trade goods; as a result, imports and exports to the South declined significantly.

The abundance of European cotton and Britain's hostility to the institution of slavery, along with Lincoln's Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico naval blockades, severely decreased any chance that either Britain or France would enter the war.

Historian Don Doyle has argued that the Union victory had a major impact on the course of world history. A Confederate victory, on the other hand, would have meant a new birth of slavery, not freedom.

Historian Fergus Bordewich, following Doyle, argues that:. The North's victory decisively proved the durability of democratic government.

Confederate independence, on the other hand, would have established an American model for reactionary politics and race-based repression that would likely have cast an international shadow into the twentieth century and perhaps beyond.

Scholars have debated what the effects of the war were on political and economic power in the South. The war resulted in at least 1,, casualties 3 percent of the population , including about , soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease, and 50, civilians.

David Hacker believes the number of soldier deaths was approximately ,, 20 percent higher than traditionally estimated, and possibly as high as , Based on census figures, 8 percent of all white men aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6 percent in the North and 18 percent in the South.

Union army dead, amounting to 15 percent of the over two million who served, was broken down as follows: [6]. In addition there were 4, deaths in the Navy 2, in battle and in the Marines in battle.

Black troops made up 10 percent of the Union death toll, they amounted to 15 percent of disease deaths but less than 3 percent of those killed in battle.

Of the 67, Regular Army white troops, 8. Of the approximately , United States Colored Troops , however, over 36, died, or In other words, the mortality "rate" amongst the United States Colored Troops in the Civil War was thirty-five percent greater than that among other troops, even though the former were not enrolled until some eighteen months after the fighting began.

Confederate records compiled by historian William F. Fox list 74, killed and died of wounds and 59, died of disease. Including Confederate estimates of battle losses where no records exist would bring the Confederate death toll to 94, killed and died of wounds.

Fox complained, however, that records were incomplete, especially during the last year of the war, and that battlefield reports likely under-counted deaths many men counted as wounded in battlefield reports subsequently died of their wounds.

Thomas L. Livermore, using Fox's data, put the number of Confederate non-combat deaths at ,, using the official estimate of Union deaths from disease and accidents and a comparison of Union and Confederate enlistment records, for a total of , deaths.

The United States National Park Service uses the following figures in its official tally of war losses: [2]. While the figures of , army deaths for the Union and , for the Confederacy remained commonly cited, they are incomplete.

In addition to many Confederate records being missing, partly as a result of Confederate widows not reporting deaths due to being ineligible for benefits, both armies only counted troops who died during their service and not the tens of thousands who died of wounds or diseases after being discharged.

This often happened only a few days or weeks later. Francis Amasa Walker , superintendent of the census, used census and surgeon general data to estimate a minimum of , Union military deaths and , Confederate military deaths, for a total death toll of , soldiers.

While Walker's estimates were originally dismissed because of the census's undercounting, it was later found that the census was only off by 6.

Analyzing the number of dead by using census data to calculate the deviation of the death rate of men of fighting age from the norm suggests that at least , and at most ,, but most likely , soldiers, died in the war.

Deaths among former slaves has proven much harder to estimate, due to the lack of reliable census data at the time, though they were known to be considerable, as former slaves were set free or escaped in massive numbers in an area where the Union army did not have sufficient shelter, doctors, or food for them.

Losses were far higher than during the recent defeat of Mexico , which saw roughly thirteen thousand American deaths, including fewer than two thousand killed in battle, between and One reason for the high number of battle deaths during the war was the continued use of tactics similar to those of the Napoleonic Wars at the turn of the century, such as charging.

This led to the adoption of trench warfare , a style of fighting that defined much of World War I. The wealth amassed in slaves and slavery for the Confederacy's 3.

Slaves in the border states and those located in some former Confederate territory occupied before the Emancipation Proclamation were freed by state action or on December 6, by the Thirteenth Amendment.

The war destroyed much of the wealth that had existed in the South. All accumulated investment Confederate bonds was forfeit; most banks and railroads were bankrupt.

The income per person in the South dropped to less than 40 percent of that of the North, a condition that lasted until well into the 20th century.

Zum Inhalt springen. Startseite Kontakt Sitemap. Kinox Civil War. This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish.

Privacy Overview This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Refugees in Northeast Syria report they have received no help from international aid organizations.

On December 30, , over 50 Syrian refugees, including 27 children, were welcomed in Ireland, where they started afresh in their new temporary homes at the Mosney Accommodation Centre in Co Meath.

As of December , a diplomatic dispute is occurring at the UN over re-authorization of cross-border aid for refugees. China and Russia oppose the draft resolution that seeks to re-authorize crossing points in Turkey, Iraq, and Jordan; China and Russia, as allies of Assad, seek to close the two crossing points in Iraq and Jordan, and to leave only the two crossing points in Turkey active.

All of the ten individuals representing the non-permanent members of the Security Council stood in the corridor outside of the chamber speaking to the press to state that all four crossing points are crucial and must be renewed.

United Nations official Mark Lowcock is asking the UN to re-authorize cross-border aid to enable aid to continue to reach refugees in Syria.

He says there is no other way to deliver the aid that is needed. He noted that four million refugees out of the over eleven million refugees who need assistance are being reached through four specific international crossing points.

Russia, aided by China's support, has vetoed the resolution to retain all four border crossings. An alternate resolution also did not pass.

These sanctions would penalize any entities lending support to the Syrian government, and any companies operating in Syria.

Some activists welcomed this legislation. If they are imposed, they will indirectly harm the Syrian people, and if they are lifted, they will indirectly revive the Syrian regime;" he attributed the sanctions to "political considerations, as the United States does not have weapons and tools in the Syrian file, and sanctions are its only means.

It seems that the US, having failed to change the regime in Syria by military force or by proxies, is tightening the economic screws and the main reason why the US is keeping hold of the production facilities in eastern Syria.

So, the economic situation is becoming more and more serious and dire in Syria and it's a major reason why refugees are not going back.

Under the Caesar Act, the latest sanctions were to be imposed on 39 individuals and entities, including Asma al-Assad , wife of the Syrian President Bashar al-Assad.

In late , a new Syrian Constitutional Committee began operating in order to discuss a new settlement and to draft a new constitution for Syria.

It includes representatives of the Syrian government, opposition groups, and countries serving as guarantors of the process such as e.

However, this committee has faced strong opposition from the Assad government. In December , the EU held an international conference which condemned any suppression of the Kurds, and called for the self-declared Automnomous Administration in Rojava to be preserved and to be reflected in any new Syrian Constitution.

In March , the Syrian Information Minister announced that his government considered recognizing the Kurdish autonomy "within the law and constitution".

An analysis released in June described the region's "relationship with the government fraught but functional" and a "semi-cooperative dynamic".

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Syrian Civil War. Ongoing multi-sided civil war in Syria.

Syria with spillovers in neighboring countries. Syrian Arab Republic. Interim Government Syrian opposition [b].

Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant [e] —present. Rojava Syrian Democratic Forces —present. Syrian Civil War. Civil uprising in Syria March—August Start of insurgency Sept.

Homs —14 Homs offensive 1st Idlib Gov. Azaz 2nd Rastan 1st al-Qusayr 2nd Idlib Gov. UN ceasefire ; escalation May — Dec.

Rise of the Islamists January — Sept. Russian intervention Sept. Aleppo escalation and Euphrates Shield March —April Collapse of Islamic State in Syria.

Rebels in retreat and Operation Olive Branch Nov. Idlib demilitarization Sep. Idlib demilitarization 5th Idlib inter-rebel conflict Sep.

Syrian War spillover and international incidents. Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War. Regional organisations. Algeria pro-Iraq pro-Syria.

Splinter groups. Related topics. Arab nationalism Arab socialism Nasserism Pan-Arabism. Politics portal Socialism portal.

Main article: Modern history of Syria. See also: Al-Assad family and Bashar al-Assad. Main article: Demographics of Syria.

Main article: Timeline of the Syrian Civil War. Main article: Civil uprising phase of the Syrian Civil War. Main article: Early insurgency phase of the Syrian Civil War.

Main article: Kofi Annan peace plan for Syria. Main article: —13 escalation of the Syrian Civil War. Main article: Inter-rebel conflict during the Syrian Civil War.

Main articles: Khan Shaykhun chemical attack , Shayrat missile strike , and Hama offensive. Main article: Belligerents of the Syrian Civil War.

Countries that support the Syrian government. Countries that support the Syrian rebels. Countries that are divided in their support.

Main article: Spillover of the Syrian Civil War. See also: Equipment of the Syrian Army and List of military equipment used by Syrian opposition forces.

Main article: Destruction of Syria's chemical weapons. See also: Syria and weapons of mass destruction and Syria chemical weapons program.

Main article: Deir ez-Zor missile strike. Main article: Media coverage of the Syrian Civil War. Main article: International reactions to the Syrian Civil War.

See also: Vetoed UN resolutions on Syria. Main article: Sectarianism and minorities in the Syrian Civil War. Main article: Refugees of the Syrian Civil War.

Main article: Internally displaced persons in Syria. Main article: Casualties of the Syrian Civil War. See also: Casualty recording. Main article: Human rights violations during the Syrian Civil War.

Main article: Humanitarian aid during the Syrian Civil War. Main article: Return of refugees of the Syrian Civil War.

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The numbers raise questions about whether an EU-Turkey refugee deal is unravelling. EU funds support 3.

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